Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour, brain function and the mind; this refers to both conscious and unconscious states of mind. Psychologists use careful observation, experimentation and analysis to expand their knowledge in the field.
Specialties CLINICAL – Uses various methods, including psychotherapy, to treat mental, emotional and behavioural disorders such as schizophrenia and clinical depression.
COGNITIVE AND PERCEPTUAL – Studies human perception, thinking and memory, as well as, reasoning, judgment and decision making.
COUNSELLING – Uses therapy to help people cope with the problems associated with normal human development, as well as recognize their strengths.
DEVELOPMENTAL – Studies the psychological development of humans from birth to death.
EDUCATIONAL – Studies how children learn and develop with special focus on subgroups, such as persons with learning disabilities, and on appropriate teaching techniques.
ENGINEERING – Conducts research on ways to improve how people operate with machines.
EVOLUTIONARY – Studies psychological traits and evolutionary principles such as mutation and behaviour.
EXPERIMENTAL – Conducts research using experimental methods on various psychological areas such as cognitive processes, behaviour and neurological processes; experimental psychologist work with both humans and animals.
FORENSIC – Involves applying psychological principles to legal issues with the aim of testifying in court and reformulating psychological findings into legal terminology for court presentation.
HEALTH – Specialises in understanding how biological, psychological and social factors affect health and illness prevention.
INDUSTRIAL/ORGANISATIONAL – Applies psychological principles and research to organisations and workplaces with the aim of improving productivity, satisfaction and workplace behaviour.
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY – Studies the relationship between brain processes and behaviour. This field also works with both human and animal subjects.
CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY – Assesses and treats persons with brain injury to assist them in regaining lost functions.
QUANTITATIVE AND MEASUREMENT – Uses mathematical and statistical methods and techniques for designing experiments and analyzing data.
REHABILITATION – Works on the rehabilitation of stroke and accident victims, persons with developmental disabilities and mental retardation.
SCHOOL – Assesses and works with children in public and private schools to help with school difficulties.
SOCIAL – Studies the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of persons and the way they are shaped by interactions with others.
SPORT – Studies the psychological factors that affect an athlete’s focus on competition goals, motivation and anxiety and fear management.
- Interview and observe clients.
- Conduct tests to assess clients’ abilities.
- Conduct assessments of clients’ mental and emotional state.
- Develop treatment plans where applicable.
- Write reports and track progress.
- Conduct research in various areas.
- Work with clients therapeutically to help them to solve problems
- Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology.
- Postgraduate qualification in a relevant specialty area (Masters or PhD).
- Good communication and people skills.
- Research skills.
- Problem-solving and decision-making skills.
- Ability to interpret results.
- Understanding and respect for various cultures.
- Time management skills.
- Report writing skills.
- Ability to empathise with clients.
- Ability to handle stress.
- Ability to work well under pressure.
- Ability to establish and maintain clear boundaries between self and clients even in highly emotional situations.
- Ability to tolerate and contain clients’ strong emotions.
- Good analytical skills